The frame that surrounds and provides for appropriate interpretation. Every system is delineated by its spatial and temporal boundaries, surrounded and influenced by its environment. It considers system related domains like action, thought, physicality and positions them to the product of time, the zeitgeist.

the stretch of a subjects (in)direct physicality and base of knowledge. The geographical and theoretical in which it presides. 

typology dissection and comparison of Chicago Metropolitan area to the Dutch Randstad

Spirit of the times, or rather, what is considered acceptable or current for an era. As complexity grows the lines blur and interrelations grow, making it able to perceive but rarely grasp its entirety. 

Reproaching ‘smart city’ for declining American cities